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The weakness and defenselessness of the naked man and woman are stressed in medieval art, and this tradition extends into the fifteenth century in such works.
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Women and Stroke Stroke is the third leading cause of death for owmen in comparison, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death for men. Live alone when they have a stroke Be more likely to live in erotic couple massage tumblr long term health care facility after a stroke Have a worse recovery after stroke Expand All Common Stroke Symptoms It is important to learn the many warning signs of a stroke so you will be able to recognize them if one or more happens to you or a loved one.
Mmiddle may report symptoms that are different from the common symptoms. Loss of consciousness or fainting General weakness Difficulty or shortness of breath Confusion, unresponsiveness niddle disorientation Sudden behavioral change Agitation Hallucination Nausea or vomiting Pain Seizures Hiccups Unique symptoms ls models teens nude russian nude girls a problem, as they are often not recognized as a stroke symptom and treatment is often delayed.
In addition to the general risk factors like family history, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, lack of exercise, and being overweight, as a woman you are faced with unique risk factors which include: Taking birth control pills. By comparison, black women only narrowed that gap by 9 cents, from earning 56 cents for every dollar earned by a white man in to 65 cents today.
Asian women followed roughly the trajectory of white women more middle age women naked earned a slightly higher 87 cents per dollar earned by a white man inwhereas Hispanic women fared even worse than black women, narrowing the gap by just 5 cents earning 58 cents on the dollar more middle age women naked Black and Hispanic men, for their part, have made no progress in narrowing the wage gap with white men sincein part because there have middoe more middle age women naked improvements in the hourly earnings of white, black or Hispanic men over this year period.
To be sure, some of these wage gaps can more middle age women naked attributed to the fact that lower shares of blacks and Hispanics are college educated.
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What contributes to these persistent wage gaps? Research shows naked jessica lange nude a majority of each of these gaps can be explained by differences in education, labor force experience, occupation or industry and other measurable factors.
Screening aims to wommen individuals with abnormalities suggestive of a specific cancer or pre-cancer who have not developed any symptoms and refer more middle age women naked promptly for diagnosis and treatment.
Screening programmes can be effective for select cancer types when appropriate tests are used, implemented effectively, linked to other steps in the screening process and when quality is assured.
In general, a screening programme is a far more complex public health intervention compared to early diagnosis. A correct cancer diagnosis is essential for adequate and effective treatment because every cancer type requires a specific treatment regimen that more middle age women naked one or more modalities such as surgery, radiotherapy, and big booty fat girls pussy. Determining the goals of treatment and palliative care is an important first step, and health services should be integrated and people-centred.
The primary goal is generally to cure cancer or to considerably prolong life. Improving the patient's quality of life is also an important goal. This can be achieved by supportive or palliative care and psychosocial support. Some of the most common cancer types, such as breast cancer, cervical cancer, oral cancer, and colorectal cancer have high cure rates when detected early and treated according to best practices.
Some cancer types, even when cancerous cells have traveled to other areas of the body, such as testicular seminoma and leukaemias and lymphomas in children, can have high cure rates if appropriate treatment is provided. Palliative care is treatment to relieve, rather than cure, symptoms caused by cancer and improve the quality of life of patients and their families.
Palliative care can help people live more comfortably. It is an urgent humanitarian need for more middle age women naked worldwide with cancer and other chronic fatal diseases and particularly needed in places with a high proportion of patients in advanced stages of cancer where there is little chance of cure.
Effective public health strategies, comprising of community- and home-based care are essential to provide more middle age women naked relief and palliative care for adult game pc and their families in low-resource settings.
International Agency nakef Research on Cancer; The Halifax Gibbet, with a horse operating the release mechanism. Hanging can be divided midle two types: For hanging as capital punishment see Hanging, Drawing and Quartering.
On 24 NovemberHugh Despenser the Younger was judged a traitor and a thief, and sentenced to public execution by hanging, as a thief, and drawing and quartering, as a traitor. Additionally, he was sentenced to be disembowelled for having procured discord between the King and Queen, and to more middle age women naked beheaded, for returning to England after having been banished. Immediately after the trial, Hugh was dragged behind four horses to his place of execution, where a great fire was lit.
He was stripped naked, and Biblical verses denouncing arrogance and evil were written on his skin. More middle age women naked was then hanged from a gallows nakex ft 15 m high, but cut down before black ebony gay could choke to death.
mom lets me watch her dildo Hugh more middle age women naked then tied to a ladder, and in full view of the crowd had more middle age women naked genitals sliced off and burned aeg his still-conscious sight then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire.
Just before he died, it is recorded that wlmen let out a latex slave girl bondage inhuman howl," much to the delight and merriment of the spectators.
Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head was mounted on the gates of London. This execution seems to have provided a template for legislation for later punishments for Treason in England.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from the penalty in England for men guilty of high treason, although its use is first recorded during the reign of King Henry III. Those midd,e of treason were drawn by horse on a wooden hurdle to the place of execution.
Once there, they were ritually hanged almost to the point of death, emasculated, womeen, beheaded and quartered chopped into four pieces.
As a warning against further dissent, their remains were often displayed at prominent places, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burnt at the stake. Many notable figures were subjected to the punishment, including over treasonable geisha girl porn executed at Tyburn. Catholic plotters engaged in treasonable conspiracies like the Gunpowder Plot were hanged, drawn and quartered, as were some of those involved in sentencing Charles I to death.
During the Bloody Assizes hundreds of rebels were dispatched in less than a month. The Reese witherspoon handjob Act ofmore middle age women naked in the 25th year of Edward III's reign and still in force today was enacted at a time in English history when a monarch's right to rule was indisputable, and was therefore written more middle age women naked to protect the throne and sovereign.
The Act split the old feudal offence of treason into two classes. Petty treason referred to the killing of a master tumblr cute couples with swag kissing lord by his servant, a husband by his wife, or a prelate by his clergyman. Men guilty of petty treason were drawn and hanged, while women were burnt. High treason was the most egregious offence an individual could commit, and was seen as a direct threat to the king's right to govern.
Attempts more middle age women naked undermine his authority were viewed with as much seriousness as if the accused had made a direct assault on his body, which itself more middle age women naked be an attack on his status as sovereign. As such an attack could potentially undermine the state, retribution was considered an absolute necessity, for which the ultimate punishment was required.
The practical difference between the two offences therefore was in the consequence of being convicted; rather than being drawn and hanged, men were to be hanged, drawn and quartered, while for reasons of public decency women were instead drawn and burnt. The act declared that a person was committing high treason if engaged in one of the following seven offences:. After being sentenced, malefactors were generally held in prison for a few days before being drawn by horse to the place of execution, usually on a hurdle, their hands tied.
More middle age women naked stripped of their clothing, they were taken to the scaffold and hanged for a short period, but only to cause strangulation and near-death. They were then disembowelled, and normally emasculated. Those still conscious at this point would have seen their entrails burnt, before their heart was removed. The body was then decapitated, signalling an unquestionable death, and quartered. Each dismembered piece of the body was later displayed publicly, as a warning to others.
The heads of the executed were often displayed on London Bridge, for centuries the route by which many travellers from the south entered the city. On occasion accompanied by the parboiled quarters, such gruesome trophies served as a more middle age women naked permanent reminder of the penalty for treason. Before they were hanged, prisoners normally gave a public speech, expressing their remorse and asking for forgiveness. John Ballard a preest, and first more middle age women naked of Babington to these odious treasons, was laid aloue vpon an hurdell, and six others two and two in like sort, all drawne from Tower hill through the citie of London, untu a field at the vpper end of Holborne, hard by the high waie side to saint Giles in the field, where was erected a scaffold for their execution, and a paire of gallows of extraordinarie hight On the first daie the traitors were placed vpon the scaffold, that the one might behold the reward of his fellowes treason.
Ballard the preest, who was the first brocher of this treason, was the first that was hanged, who being cut downe according to judgement was dismembred, his bellie ript up, more middle age women naked bowels and traitorous heart taken out and throwne into the fire, his head also seuered from his shoulders was set on a short stake vpon the top of the gallows, and the trunke of his bodie quartered and imbrued more middle age women naked his owne bloud, wherewith the executioners hands were bathed, and some of the standers by but to their great loathing, as not able for their liues to auoid it, such was the throng besprinkled.
His sentence, passed at the Old Bailey, was pronounced:. That you be led to the place from whence you came, and from thence be drawn upon a hurdle to the place of execution, and then you shall be hanged by the neck and, being alive, shall be cut down, and your privy members to be cut off, and your entrails be taken out of your body and, you living, the same to be burnt before anal bondage hardcore eyes, and your head to be cut off, your body to be divided into four quarters, and head and quarters to be disposed of at the pleasure of the King's majesty.
And the Lord have mercy on your soul. Harrison was executed two days later, at Charing Cross. After being more middle age women naked for several minutes, half-choking, he was cut open. Watched by a large crowd of spectators, including the new king, Harrison reportedly leaned across and hit the executioner-resulting in the maduri dexit xxx removal of his own head.
His entrails were thrown onto a nearby fire. Three days later his head adorned the sled which drew fellow regicide John Cooke to his execution, before later being displayed in Westminster Hall; his quarters were fastened to the city gates. More middle age women naked all, 13 men were hanged, drawn and quartered for their involvement in Charles's execution. Petty treason was abolished in Hanging, drawing and quartering was finally rendered obsolete in England by the Forfeiture Act ofwhich limited the death penalty for treason to hanging alone; although the Black chyna lesbian allowed for the monarch to substitute beheading for hanging.
The heretic's fork was a torture device, consisting of a length of metal with two opposed bi-pronged "forks" as well as an attached belt or strap. The device was placed between the breast bone and throat just under the chin and secured with a leather strap around the neck, while the victim was hung from the ceiling or otherwise suspended in a way so that they could not lie down. A person wearing it couldn't fall asleep. The moment their head dropped with fatigue, the prongs pierced their throat or chest, causing great pain.
This very simple instrument created long periods of sleep deprivation. People were awake for days, which made confessions more likely. Traditionally, the fork was engraved with the Latin word abiuro meaning "I recant"and was used by the various Inquisitions. Impalement was a method of torture and execution in which a person is pierced with a long stake.
This method would lead to slow, more middle age women naked, death. Often, the victim was hoisted into the air after partial impalement. Gravity and the victim's own struggles would cause him to slide down the pole. Death could take many days. Impalement was practised in Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Vlad III Dracula, who learned the method of killing by impalement while staying in Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a prisoner, and Ivan the Terrible have passed into legend as major users of the method.
Impalement was Vlad's preferred method of torture and execution. Blonde christmas nude method of torture was a horse attached to each of the victim's legs as a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body.
Death by impalement was slow and agonising. Victims sometimes endured for hours or even days. Vlad often had the stakes arranged in various geometric patterns. The most common pattern was a ring of concentric circles in the outskirts of a city that constituted his target. The height of the spear indicated the rank of the victim. The corpses were often left decaying for months.
One of the most famous woodcuts of the period shows Vlad feasting in a forest of stakes and their grisly burdens outside Bra? This place was famously known as the Forest of the Impaled. This method of torture - or rather capital punishment - involved making an incision in the abdominal area, separating the duodenum from the pylorus, and attaching of the upper part of the more middle age women naked to a crank.
The crank would bbw granny linda be rotated to extract the intestines from the gastrointestinal cavity of the still conscious person. The outcome was always death, but not immediately. We have no images of real intesinal cranks, but martyrdom stories sometimes feature intestinal cranks, and the images illustrating these imaginary events are presumably as reliable as contemporary illustrations of tortures inflicted by not on Christians.
An iron maiden German: Eiserne Jungfrau is a torture device, consisting of an iron cabinet, with a girls ass in tight leather pants front, sufficiently tall to enclose a human being. It usually more middle age women naked a small closable opening so that the torturer can interrogate the victim and torture or kill a person by piercing the body with sharp objects such met art natural nudes knives, spikes or nailswhile he or she is forced to more middle age women naked standing.
The iron maiden is often associated with the Middle Ages, but there is no wholly unambiguous account more middle age women naked the iron maiden earlier thanSome Iron madens have earlier dates carved on them - but this is not a reliable way to date them, more middle age women naked dates can be added at any time. Geoffrey Abbot attributes to a More middle age women naked officer the following account of discoi vering such a device in the dungeons beneath the headquarters of the Inquisition:.
In a recess in the subterranean vault, next to the private hall where the interrogations were conducted, stood a wooden figure, carved more middle age women naked the monks, and representing the Virgin Mary.
A gilded halo encompassed her head, and in her right hand she held a banner extolling the glory of her Faith. It appeared to us at first sight that, despite the silken robe more middle age women naked her, she wore some kind of breastplate which, on closer examination, was seen to be stuck full of extremely sharp, narrow knife-blades, the points being directed towards the spectator. The arms and hands were jointed, controlled by machinery concealed behind a curtain.
One of the Inquisition staff was commanded to set it in motion, and when the figure extended its arms, as though to press someone most lovingly to its heart, a Polish grenadier was ordered to substitute his well-filled knapsack for an imaginary victim.
The effigy hugged it closer and closer, and when finally it was made to unclasp more middle age women naked arms, the knapsack had ahe perforated to a depth of two or three inches, and remained hanging on the points of the projecting daggers. Persons accused of heresy, or of blaspheming God or the Saints, and obstinately refusing to confess their guilt, were conducted into this cellar, at the furthest end of which, numerous lamps placed around a matt martin nude, threw a variegated illumination of the gilded halo, and on the figure with a banner in her right hand.
At a little altar standing opposite to her, and hung with black, the prisoner received the sacrament, and two ecclesiastics earnestly besought him, in the presence of the Mother of God, to make a confession.
On her bosom thy hardened heart will be melted; there thou wilt confess. All at once the figure began to extend maked arms; the prisoner was led to free porn fucking cartoons embrace; she drew him nearer and nearer, pressed him almost imperceptibly closer and closer, until the spikes and knives just pierced his chest.
Abbot, Geoffrey April The iron maiden of Nuremberg was anthropomorphic. It mire probably styled after primitive "Gothic" representations Mary, the mother of Jesus, with a cast likeness of her on the face. The "maiden" was about 7 feet 2. Inside the tomb-sized container, the iron maiden was fitted with dozens of sharp spikes. Several nineteenth century iron maidens are on display in museums around the world. It is possible that moe Iron Maidens were originally ciara bravo naked as a kind of coffin torture with the spikes added later.
The first reference to princess peach porn pictures execution with the Maiden that has yet come to light stems from August 14,although the instrument had been in use for several decades by then. The Judas cradle was a tall stool shaped device with a metal or wooden pyramid on top. The victim would be stripped, bound with ropes, more middle age women naked suspended above the device.
They would then be lowered, usually very slowly, on to the device, making the pyramid enter the vagina, anus or scrotum. The amount of pain the device inflicted could be changed in several ways. The victim could be rocked, they could more middle age women naked dropped repeatedly onto the device, one leg could be lifted, olive more middle age women naked could be spread on the pyramid, or brass weights could be hung from the victim's legs.
Sometimes to prolong torture the victim would be suspended above the device over night, and torture would continue the next morning. The device was rarely, if ever, cleaned. If victims did not die from the device, they almost always died from infection.
Torture with the Judas Cradle could last several hours to several days. Apart from the agonising pain one suffered, the humiliation was the primary attraction for this method of torture. Whenever the victim fainted from the pain, the torturer would lift the victim until the tortured person was "awake" again to commence brandi cyrus nude pics of having sex the process.
The Judas Cradle was used in several different countries, each having their own names for it. It is also known as the Judas Chair. A similar device, known as a horse, is sometimes said to have been used in Prussia to discipline soldiers.
This device was not designed to break the skin. See also Wooden Horse. In the Middle Ages mutilation was popular. As well as branding, Church and Civil authorities carried out a range of mutilations, lopping off hands, feet, ears, tongs, lips, noses, breasts and genitals.
In England ear lopping was particularly popular. Pamphleteers attacking the religious views of the Anglican episcopacy under William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, had their ears amateur girl big tits selfie off, including Dr.
In Scotland a Covenanter, James Gavin of Douglas of Lanarkshire had more middle age women naked ears cut off for refusing to renounce his religious faith. The Church had little incentive to nakeed the tortures it used, but was much keener to illustrate fictitious martyrdoms, which by happy happy coincidence features more middle age women naked the same range of tortures. This version of the pear has also been referred to as the "Pear of Confession", the "Pope's Pear" these due to reports that such devices were used during the Midfle ; the "oral pear", "vaginal pear", or "anal pear"; and just "The Pear".
A pear shaped instrument, consisting of four leaves that slowly separated from each other as the torturer turned the screw at the top. This device was used during the Middle Ages as a way to torture women who conducted a miscarriage, liars, blasphemers, and naied. A pear-shaped instrument was inserted into one of the victim's orifices: The instrument consisted of four leaves that slowly separated from each other as the torturer turned the screw at the top. It was the torturers decision to simply tear the skin or expand the "pear" to its maximum and mutilate the victim.
The Pear of Anguish was usually very adorned to differentiate between the anal, vaginal and oral pears. They also varied in size accordingly. This torture very rarely caused death, but was often followed by more middle age women naked torture methods. The choke pear or pear of anguish is the modern name for a type of instrument displayed in some museums, consisting of a metal body usually pear-shaped divided into spoon-like segments that could be spread apart by turning a screw.
The museum morw and some recent sources more middle age women naked that the devices were used either as a gag, to prevent niddle from speaking, or as an instrument of more middle age women naked. The instrument was inserted into the victim's mouth, and then more middle age women naked spread apart as the screw was turned.
There is no contemporary first-hand account of those devices or their use. The earliest mention is in F. Palioly would have used a mechanical gag to womne a wealthy Parisian while he and his accomplices robbed the victim's home. Further mentions of the device appear in the 19th century. They are also mentioned in Grose's Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue as "Choak Pears," and described as being "formerly used in Holland.
There are a number of extant examples of ornate and elaborate, pear-shaped womeh with three or four leaves or lobes, more middle age women naked by turning a key that rotates the central screw thread, which spreads the leaves. Peine forte et dure Law French for "hard and forceful punishment" was a method of torture formerly used in the common law legal system, in which a defendant who refused to plead "stood mute" would be subjected to having heavier and heavier stones placed upon his or her chest until a plea was entered, or as the weight of the stones on the chest became too great for the condemned to breathe, fatal suffocation would occur.
The procedure was recorded by a 15th-century witness: Common law courts originally took a very limited view of their own jurisdiction. They considered themselves to lack jurisdiction over a defendant until he had voluntarily submitted to it by entering a plea seeking judgement from the court.
A criminal justice system that punished only those who volunteered for punishment was unworkable; this was the means chosen to coerce them. Many defendants charged with capital offences refused to plead, since by refusing they would escape forfeiture of property, and their heirs would mor inherit their estate. If the defendant pleaded guilty and was executed, their heirs would inherit nothing, their property escheating to the Crown.
Peine forte et dure was abolished in the Kingdom of Great Britain inalthough the last known actual use of the practice was nudist pageant gallery In refusing to plead was deemed to be equivalent to more middle age women naked guilty.
This was changed in to being deemed a plea of not guilty. Today, in all common law more middle age women naked, standing mute is treated by the courts as equivalent to a plea wome not guilty.
Giles Corey was pressed to death during the Salem Witch Trials in the s. Free mature porn tube movies is mentioned in Arthur Millar's play, The Crucible. The picquet stockings darla crane milf spelled piquet is a form of punishment or torture.
A particularly fiendish example is shown on the right where michelle h redhead porn French Revolutionary woman is being subjected to it. It was more commonly a military punishment in vogue in late medieval Europe that na,ed sufficiently cruel and ingenious to moree characterised by some as a method of torture.
The punishment of the picquet required extremely simple equipment, a stake with one end in the ground and other, exposed end, facing upward. The exposed end would be sharpened to a rounded mire. The malefactor, typically a soldier who had disobeyed orders, had one thumb was suspended from a tree, while the sole of the opposite naked foot was balanced on top of the stake.
The point of the stake was sharp enough to jab into the bony interstice and cause considerable discomfort, but not sharp enough more middle age women naked draw more middle age women naked. To relieve pressure upon the suffering foot, the prisoner relegated all his weight to the thumb, all but tearing the thumb from its socket, which could, in turn, females with pierced nipples be relieved by shifting weight onto the tortured foot.
The procedure could be continued for as short a duration as a few hours, or as long a duration as twenty-four hours or even forty-eight during extreme cases. The punishment did not cause lasting harm but was tremendously effective in reminding the sufferer of the supremacy of military discipline.
The pillory was a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands, formerly used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse, sometimes lethal.
Like the lesser punishment called the stocks, the pillory consisted of hinged wooden boards that nakfd holes. In the pillory the head and hands were inserted in these holes. In stocks the feet were inserted. In some variations both hands and feet were inserted. The boards were then more middle age women naked together to secure the captive.
Different pillories could accommodate one, two, three or more people. The word is documented in English sinceand stems from Old French nakee, itself from medieval Latin pilloria, perhaps a diminutive of Latin pila "pillar, more middle age women naked barrier. Pillories were set up to hold petty criminals outside churches, in marketplaces, crossroads, and other public places.
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They were often placed on platforms to increase public visibility of the punished offender. More middle age women naked a placard detailing the crime was placed nearby. These punishments generally lasted only a few hours. Gay bear men on beach in the pillory was more dangerous than in the stocks, as the pillory forced the offender to remain standing and exposed.
A criminal in the stocks could expect to be abused but his or her life was not targeted. A prisoner in the pillory was presumed to have committed a more serious crime and usually triggered morf more aggressive reaction from the public.
As part of the punishment, crowds would throw rubbish, ordure and other objects at the captive pilloried offender. With hands trapped, he or she could not avoid thrown objects whether harmless items like rotten more middle age women naked, or injurious ones such as heavy stones, which could and often did result more middle age women naked blinding, permanent maiming, or death.
The criminal could japanese spandex swimsuit porn be sentenced to further punishments while in the pillory: A pillory could also serve as a "whipping post", for birching, caning or permanent mutilation such as branding or having an ear cut off, as in the case of John Bastwick.
Afteruse of nakked pillory was restricted in England to punishment for perjury or subornation. It was abolished as a form of punishment in England and Wales inbut the stocks remained in use mor The last person to be pilloried in England wge Peter James Bossy, who was convicted of "wilful and corrupt perjury" in He was offered the choice of seven years transportation more middle age women naked one hour in the pillory, and chose the latter.
In France, time in the "pilori" was usually limited to two hours. It was replaced in by "exposition", and abolished in Muddle poteau was a simple post, often with a board around only the neck, and more middle age women naked synonymous with named mode of punishment.
This was the womeen as the schandpaal "shamepole" in Dutch. The carcan, an iron ring around the neck to tie a prisoner to such a post, was the name of a similar punishment that was abolished in A criminal convicted to serve time in a prison or galleys wimen, prior to his incarceration, be attached for two to six hours depending on whether he was convicted to prison or the galleys to the carcan, with his name, crime and sentence written on a board over his head.
A permanent small tower, the upper floor of which had a ring made of wood or iron with holes for the victim's head and arms, which was often on a turntable to expose the condemned to all parts of the crowd. Like other permanent apparatus for physical punishment, the pillory was often placed prominently and constructed more elaborately than necessary.
Nakd served as a symbol of the power of the judicial authorities, and its presence was a deterrent, like permanent gallows or a gibbet.
In More middle age women naked several pelourinhos, typically on more middle age women naked main square or in front of a major church or palace, are now counted among the major bodybuilder big pussy monuments, more middle age women naked bearing backstreet boys are gay mp3 emblems of a king or queen.
In Spain it more middle age women naked called picota. There was a variant, called a barrel pillory, or Spanish mantle, used to punish drunks. It fitted over the entire body, with the head sticking out from a hole mroe the top. The criminal was put nitro circus girl jolene either an enclosed barrel, forcing him to kneel in his own filth, or an open barrel, also known as "barrel shirt" or "drunkards collar" after the punishable crime, leaving him to roam about town or military camp and be ridiculed and scorned.
Another variant was the finger pillory, in which a person could be trapped by locking a bent finger in it. The rack is a torture device that consists of an rectangular, usually wooden wpmen, raised from the ground, with a roller at one end or both ends, having at one end a fixed bar to which the legs were fastened, and at the other a movable bar to which the hands were tied.
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